Symptoms of Rheumatic Disease: Rheumatic diseases are inflammatory conditions that occur in bones, muscles and joints. There are more than a hundred diseases in the definition of rheumatic diseases. Some of these diseases are rare and some are common. Arthritis, one of the most common rheumatic diseases, refers to pain, swelling, redness and loss of function in the joint. Since rheumatic diseases affect other systems besides muscles and joints, they are defined as multisystem diseases.
The cause of rheumatic diseases is not known exactly. Genetics, immune system and environmental factors are the main factors blamed.
What are the symptoms of rheumatic disease?
- Pain, swelling and deformity in joints: Sometimes a single joint, sometimes more than one joint may be involved. Pain can be seen at rest or may increase with movement.
- Synovitis in the joints (inflammation and fluid accumulation in the joint space): Crystals accumulate in the joint fluid. This situation causes severe pain.
- Muscle pain
- Muscle weakness
- Back and lower back pain
- Skin rashes
- Nail changes
- Hardness in the skin
- Tear reduction
- Reduced saliva
- Redness in the eyes,
- decreased vision
- Prolonged fever
- Pale fingers
- Shortness of breath, cough, bloody sputum
- Digestive system complaints
- Impaired kidney function
- Nervous system disorders (paralysis)
- Clot formation in the veins
- Under the skin
- Hypersensitivity to the sun
- Difficulty sitting up and climbing stairs
Types of Rheumatic Diseases
1. Rheumatoid arthritis
Common rheumatoid arthritis in adults; It is a chronic, systemic, and autoimmune disease. It can affect many tissues and systems. The excessive increase of synovial fluid in the joint spaces causes deformation in the joints. Rheumatoid arthritis can cause serious injuries in the future. Patients initially have weakness, fever, and joint pain. These symptoms are followed by joint pain, morning stiffness, and symmetrical swelling in the small joints. Swelling is most common in the wrists and hands. Other affected joints are elbows, knees, feet, and neck vertebrae. There may be swelling and pain in the jaw joint, so chewing may be impaired in patients. Subcutaneous nodules can also be seen in rheumatoid arthritis. There may be nodules in the lungs, heart, eyes, and larynx. Rheumatoid arthritis can cause inflammation of the heart membranes in the future. There may be fluid accumulation between the lung membranes. Dry eyes can be seen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. There is no specific blood test for the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis, which is more common in women. Radiology is of great importance in diagnosis.
The form of rheumatoid arthritis seen in children is called juvenile rheumatoid arthritis or still disease. The disease, which shows symptoms similar to adults and affects development negatively, occurs before the age of 16.
Rheumatoid arthritis is a progressive disease. Purpose of treatment in rheumatoid arthritis; It can be summarized as relieving pain, preventing joint damage and other complications, and ensuring that patients continue their daily activities. Medication alone is not enough to achieve these goals. Patient education and regular check-ups are required.
2. Osteoarthritis (joint rheumatism-calcification)
Osteoarthritis is a progressive, non-inflammatory joint disease that affects all the structures that make up the joint, especially cartilage. Pain, tenderness, movement limitation, and fluid accumulation are seen in the joints. Osteoarthritis can occur in a single joint, small joints, or many joints at the same time. Hip, knee, hand, and spine are the main areas of involvement.
Risk factors in osteoarthritis:
- The incidence is very high over the age of 65
- It is more common in women than men
- Occupational difficulties
- Strenuous sports activities
- Previous injuries and disorders in joints
- Lack of physical exercise
- Genetic factors
Osteoarthritis is initially slow and insidious. Many joints that often show pathological and radiological features of osteoarthritis may have no clinical complaints. Therefore, the patient cannot determine when the disease started. When the disease begins to show symptoms, the complaints observed are pain, stiffness, limitation of movement, joint enlargement, deformity, dislocation of the joint, and limitation of movement. Osteoarthritis pain is typically pain that increases with movement and decreases with rest. In most of the patients with osteoarthritis, a feeling of stiffness in the joints is described. This is how patients can describe the difficulty or pain they experience at the beginning of the movement. The most typical feature of joint stiffness in osteoarthritis is the stiffness that occurs after inactivity. Movement limitation often develops in the affected joints. Bony swelling and painful swelling may occur at the joint margins. On the other hand, rough crepitation (crackling) is often heard during the movement of the joint with osteoarthritis.
There is no specific diagnostic test for osteoarthritis. The goal of treatment in osteoarthritis is to reduce pain and prevent disability.
3. Ankylosing spondylitis
Ankylosing spondylitis usually starts in the hip joint at an early stage and involves the spine in the later period; It is a progressive and chronic disease of unknown cause. Increasing especially in the morning and with resting; Blunt, chronic pain and movement restrictions that are relieved by heat, exercise, and pain medications are the most common symptoms. Patients have morning stiffness. Systemic symptoms such as low-grade fever, fatigue, weakness, and weight loss can be seen. Uveitis can be seen in the eye.
4. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)
Systemic lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disease that affects many systems that occur due to environmental and hormonal reasons in individuals with a genetic predisposition. It progresses with exacerbations and sedation periods. Common symptoms such as fever, weight loss, and weakness are seen in SLE. The butterfly-style rash seen on the nose and cheeks in patients as a result of exposure to the sun is specific to the disease. In addition, ulcers and various rashes on the skin can be seen in the mouth. Arthritis in the hands, wrists, and knees can also be seen in SLE. The disease, which can affect the heart, lungs, digestive system, and eyes, often occur before the age of 20. SLE, which is more common in women, may be accompanied by depression and psychosis.
5. Soft tissue rheumatism (Fibromyalgia)
Fibromyalgiaknown as chronic pain and fatigue syndrome. Patients get up very tired in the morning. It is a disease that impairs the quality of life. It is more common in women than in men. Stress aggravates the disease. The most important symptom is the sensitivity seen in some parts of the body. Patients wake up with pain in the morning and have difficulty waking up. Difficulty in breathing and tinnitus may be seen. Fibromyalgia is more common in perfectionists and sensitive individuals. Depression, memory problems, and concentration impairment are also common in these patients. Patients often experience constipation and gas problems. Genetic factors have an effect on the formation of the disease. Fibromyalgia is more common in those who have had emotional trauma in childhood. In addition to drugs in the treatment of fibromyalgia, physical therapy, massage,
6. Behcet’s disease
Behçet’s disease is a disease with ulcerated wounds in the mouth and genital organs and eye uveitis. It is thought to occur due to genetic and environmental factors. Behçet’s disease occurs equally in both women and men. Eye findings and vascular involvement are more common in men. Behçet’s disease is most common between the ages of 20-40. Behçet’s disease, which can cause arthritis in the joints, can lead to clot formation in the veins. Behçet’s disease is diagnosed according to clinical symptoms. The disease has a chronic course.
Gout is both a metabolic disease and is included in rheumatic diseases. Some substances in the body, especially proteins, turn into uric acid and are excreted from the body. Uric acid accumulates in the tissues as a result of increased production or impaired excretion of uric acid and gout occurs. Uric acid accumulates, especially in the joints and kidneys. Symptoms of the disease are swelling and pain in the joints, waking up due to pain at night, low back and abdominal pain, and kidney stones if there is kidney involvement. Gout disease, which progresses in attacks, is more common in those who consume excessive red meat and alcohol.
Types of Arthritis and Rheumatic Diseases
There are several forms of arthritis and different rheumatic illnesses, including:
- Osteoarthritis: the maximum not unusual place sort of arthritis, damages each the cartilage (the tissue that cushions the ends of bones withinside the joint) and the underlying bone. Osteoarthritis can motive joint aches and stiffness. Disability consequences most customarily whilst the disorder impacts the backbone, knees, and hips.
- Rheumatoid arthritis: a much less not unusual place sort of arthritis that happens whilst the immune gadget assaults the liner of the joints (synovium). This produces ache, swelling, and lack of joint function. The maximum generally affected joints are the ones withinside the palms and feet.
- Gout: a sort of arthritis resulting from needle-like crystals of uric acid that collect withinside the joints, typically starting withinside the massive toe. Symptoms can also additionally come and move and consist of infection, swelling, and ache withinside the affected joint(s).
- Infectious arthritis: resulting from infectious retailers inclusive of micro organisms or viruses. Parvovirus arthritis and gonococcal arthritis are examples of infectious arthritis, as is arthritis that happens with Lyme disorder, bacterial contamination resulting from the chew of inflamed ticks.
- Juvenile idiopathic arthritis: the maximum not unusual place shape of arthritis in childhood. Symptoms consist of ache, stiffness, swelling, and lack of joint function. It can be related to rashes or fevers and might have an effect on numerous components of the frame.
- Spondyloarthropathies: a set of rheumatic illnesses that typically have an effect on the backbone. There are some forms:
- Ankylosing spondylitis can also have an effect on the hips, shoulders, and knees.
- Reactive arthritis is resulting from contamination of the decrease in the urinary tract, bowel, or different organs. It is generally related to eye problems, pores and skin rashes, and mouth sores.
- Psoriatic arthritis is a shape of arthritis that happens in a few sufferers with the pores and skin ailment psoriasis. Psoriatic arthritis frequently impacts the joints on the ends of the palms and ft and is followed with the aid of using adjustments withinside the fingernails and toenails. Backache can also additionally arise if the backbone is involved.
- Bursitis: happens because of infection of the bursae (small, fluid-stuffed sacs that assist lessen friction withinside the joint). Symptoms consist of ache and tenderness. Movement of close-by joints can also be affected.
- Fibromyalgia: signs and symptoms consist of considerable muscle ache and soft points—regions at the frame which can be painful whilst pushed. Many humans additionally revel in fatigue and sleep disturbances.
- Polymyalgia rheumatica: includes tendons, muscles, ligaments, and tissues across the joint. Symptoms consist of ache, aching, and morning stiffness withinside the shoulders, hips, neck, and decrease back. It is on occasion the primary signal of massive molecular arteritis, a disorder of the arteries characterized with the aid of using headaches, infection, weak spots, weight loss, and fever.
- Polymyositis: reasons infection and weak spot withinside the muscles. The disorder can also additionally have an effect on the complete frame and motive disability.
- Scleroderma: additionally called systemic sclerosis. The disorder is resulting from immoderate manufacturing of collagen (a fiber-like protein), main to thickening and harm to the pores and skin, blood vessels, joints, and on occasion inner organs inclusive of the lungs and kidneys.
- Systemic lupus erythematosus: additionally called lupus or SLE. This disorder is precipitated whilst the immune gadget assaults the frame’s personal healthful cells, ensuing in infection of and harm to the joints, pores and skin, kidneys, heart, lungs, blood vessels, and brain.
- Tendinitis: infection of tendons (difficult cords of tissue that join muscle to bone). This is resulting from overuse, injury, or a rheumatic situation and might limit the motion of close-by joints.
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