What are the causes of back pain? How is back pain diagnosed?

One of the troubles brought by still life is back pain. This condition that one out of every five people experiences at least once in their life decreases the quality of life. However, back pain can also be a symptom of an important disease. It may be due to a simple cause such as muscle injury, or it may be a symptom of many diseases such as heart, lung, gallbladder disorders, or neck and back hernias. In this article, we have compiled What are the causes of back pain?

What is back pain?

Back pain is the pain caused by the stretching of the muscles on both sides of the spine on our back, from the head to the waist area. The discomfort, which is mostly caused by stress, usually resolves on its own within a few days. In some cases, it also occurs as a result of the stress of the nerves in the neck, shoulder, and back region due to various factors and the long stretch of the back muscles. Back pain is an often neglected ailment. Most people, especially the elderly, do not see these pains as a sign of illness. They learn and accept to live with it. Sometimes back pain comes on suddenly and makes it difficult to move around. Stiff back after sudden movements and strain are examples of these.

What are the symptoms of back pain?

Your lifestyle can be an important cause of back pain. If you sit at the computer too much, move too little during the day, have the wrong posture, sitting and eating habits; too much wind, cold weather, etc. If you are exposed to conditions, the formation of back pain becomes easier. At the same time, excessive weight, fear, and mental tensions also cause back pain. Pain in your back for a long time, restricted movements, muscle aches, and sudden pain in the form of stabbing are among the symptoms of back pain. This pain usually happens around your lumbar spine. It can also be felt in your neck, arms, and neck. However, your complaints of high fever, sudden weight loss, swelling, back pain that progresses to your chest or does not go away, and your back injury, numbness in your hip, If you have pain that descends below your knees or you have back pain for the first time, you should see your doctor. Apart from this, some of the symptoms that you should definitely consult your doctor are as follows:

  • Serious traumas in the last 3 months
  • Presence of a disease affecting the immune system
  • Long-term cortisone use
  • Night sweats
  • Back pain that increases at night
  • Increased back pain
  • Back pain that occurs with minor trauma and sudden movements in people with osteoporosis
  • Pain that lasts longer than a month
  • If numbness, weakness, and urinary incontinence in the legs are at the threshold
What are the causes of back pain? How is back pain diagnosed?

What are the causes of back pain?

Causes of back pain: Back pain usually occurs as a result of strained muscles forcing some nerves. The reason for this may be physical activities such as hunchback or improper sitting and walking, sleeping on an uncomfortable floor, bending over for a long time, and standing. Lack of exercise, prolonged inactivity, sleep disturbances are also seen as causes. Mental problems such as excessive mental tension and fear can also cause back pain. Obesity, viral infections, bone disorders, trauma, spine disease, disc slippage, muscle or connective tissue disease, internal diseases such as kidney, heart, lung, and esophagus, tumors are also the answer to the question of causing back pain. At the same time, pregnancy and gynecological problems also cause this pain.

Causes of back pain: Sedentary lifestyle (with or without irregular physical activity).

  • Fibromyalgia ;

Apart from the sedentary life we ​​mentioned above, it is a common and unknown disease that can spread to shoulder blades, shoulders, and cause common body pain. Stress, anxiety, and similar factors can also increase fibromyalgia.

  • Injuries, traumas ;

Sports injuries, traffic accidents, and similar injuries can also be the cause of back pain. Simple injuries such as crushing and straining of the muscles and various fractures can be cited as examples.

  • Osteoclasis;

Collapse fractures in the vertebrae due to decreased bone density may cause back pain.

  • Back hernia;

Hernias in the discs, which are cushions between the vertebrae, are more common in the neck and waist. Less commonly, there may also be a hernia in the back area. Depending on the segment where the hernia occurs, it may cause pain or tingle in the form of a belt.

  • Deformity (scoliosis, kyphosis, etc.);

In spinal curvatures, as age progresses, joint degeneration can also be a cause of back pain.

  • Rheumatic diseases;

It is a group of diseases that originate from the connective tissues around bones and joints and manifest with bone-muscle-joint pain. Rheumatic diseases can be seen at any age.

  • Tumors;

Benign and malignant tumors originating from the bone or nerve structures of the spine can cause back pain, as well as tumors such as breast, lung, prostate, etc., can spread to the spine and cause back pain. The pain does not pass with rest. Sudden weight loss, weakness may be accompanied by fever.

  • Degenerative changes;

With age, disorders and calcifications occur in the joints and discs between the vertebrae. The discs can lose their liquid content and cause bulges. These changes can cause pain as a result of decreasing the distance between the vertebrae.

  • Reflected pains;

Back pain can also be caused by ‘reflected pain’ from organs in various parts of the body, except for the muscles and bones in the back area. (lung diseases, heart diseases, stomach problems, etc.)

  • Other reasons;

Various metabolic and microbial conditions can also cause back pain.

What are the types of back pain?

There are many causes of back pain. Generally, back pain, which has two types, can be described as chronic and acute. Acute pain lasts less than one to six weeks. Chronic pain lasts longer than six weeks. The causes of both types of pain are different as well as their treatment. In addition to all these, lumbar pain in the lumbar region, cervical region, neck region, as well as lumbar stiffness, and waist and neck pain are considered a type of back pain because it spreads to the back area. A medical examination is required to distinguish. However, 9 out of 10 patients recover within a month without treatment. Therefore, it is not necessary to see a doctor as soon as back pain begins. Changing your lifestyle often clears up the problem. However, if your pain does not decrease within two to three days,

Who Is It Seen?

  • Working in the same position continuously, leaning forward, rotating the trunk with the hips and feet fixed,
  • Being exposed to vibration when lifting and carrying heavy, doing jobs that require repetitive activities
  • To adopt a sedentary lifestyle in daily life,
  • The weakness of back, waist, and neck muscles,
  • Obesity
  • To smoke
  • Being over middle age or elderly with osteoporosis
    have joint rheumatism
  • Job dissatisfaction, monotonous work life
  • Problems in family and business life

How is back pain diagnosed?

As with any ailment, it is important to describe back pain as detailed as possible. It makes use of helpful methods such as the pain scale and pain diary. Clinical history, physical and neurological examination, laboratory tests, and radiological imaging are helpful in the diagnosis of a patient presenting with back pain. Not all of these methods can be applied by the physician. Mostly, the diagnosis can be made easily by physical examination. Your past history is as important to your doctor as your current disease history. Generally, the examination begins by asking the following questions:

  • Localization of the pain, ie the location of the painful area?
  • Do back pains spread elsewhere?
  • How long have you had pain?
  • In what condition and position does it hurt?
  • When does the pain increase or decrease?
  • How severe is the back pain?
  • Are there any physical or psychological complaints accompanying the pain?

After all these questions, your physician determines the diagnostic method with other methods he deems necessary and the appropriate back pain treatment begins for you.


Your medical doctor will have a look at you again and determine your capacity to sit, stand, walk, and raise your legs. Your medical doctor may ask you to charge your ache on a scale of 0 to ten and speak to you approximately how properly you are functioning together along with your ache.

These checks assist decide wherein the ache comes from, how a lot you could circulate earlier than ache forces you to stop, and whether or not you’ve got muscle spasms. They also can assist rule out greater critical reasons for again ache.

If there may be cause to suspect that a selected circumstance is inflicting your again ache, your medical doctor would possibly order one or greater tests:

  • X-ray. These photographs display the alignment of your bones and whether or not you’ve got arthritis or damaged bones. These photographs on my own may not display issues together along with your spinal cord, muscles, nerves, or disks.
  • MRI or CT scans. These scans generate photographs that can monitor herniated disks or issues with bones, muscles, tissue, tendons, nerves, ligaments, and blood vessels.
  • Blood tests. These can assist decide whether or not you’ve got contamination or different circumstance that is probably inflicting your ache.
  • Bone test. In uncommon cases, your medical doctor would possibly use a bone test to search for bone tumors or compression fractures because of osteoporosis.
  • Nerve studies. Electromyography (EMG) measures the electrical impulses produced via way of means of the nerves and the responses of your muscles. This check can affirm nerve compression because of herniated disks or narrowing of your spinal canal (spinal stenosis).

What are the protection methods?

When asked what is good for back pain, protective methods are mostly recommended. Patients with frequent back pain are recommended to do physical activity correctly. The muscles that move during the movements of your spine become stronger and more durable and flexible.

Thus, it plays a role in protecting the ligaments, nerves, and tendons that support the spine. Swimming is a sport that is extremely good for back pain as well as many types of pain. Make the right stretches a part of your daily life. Avoid staying still for a long time. At the same time, eat a balanced diet and reduce the excessive load on the spine caused by excess weight. Review your posture, sitting, driving, and lying position. In choosing a bed, chair, and seat, the most suitable for your size should be preferred.

The waist of your car seat adjustment, make sure it supports your back and neck. Avoid stress and tension as much as possible. Do not make movements that will strain the muscles in your body. Avoid cold, wind, and getting wet. Take advantage of sunlight to strengthen your bones. In addition to all these, do not neglect to see your physician regularly and have your routine checks.

What are back pain treatment methods?

Back pain treatment methods are as many as the causes of back pain. Changing the lifestyle will alleviate the pain, as well as medicated and non-medicated treatment options. Your doctor decides on these treatment methods together with you. Acute back pain is usually treated with medication. It is supported by exercise and sports. In some types of back pain, the doctor injects directly into the painful spot.

In the case of confronting specific back pain, the focus of pain is reached. The drugs used in this situation are different. Movement is generally recommended in drug-free treatment. Depending on the age and physical condition of the patient, walking, cycling or swimming may be recommended. Different options may be recommended for patients experiencing chronic pain. Psychological therapy is one of them. Again, physiotherapy according to the patient’s condition, can be directed to occupational therapy specialists. Thus, it is ensured that the patient gets away from the wrong movements that have been used for a long time. In many cases, the patient himself can alleviate back pain with different protection methods.


  • Rest; In many cases that cause back pain, the first treatment is to rest the area and wait for the pain to subside. However, prolonged inactivity may lead to increased pain
  • Hot Application; If there is no edema on the back of the patient, the hot application is effective to relax the tissues and stimulate the blood flow in the area.
  • Stretching Exercises: Stretching the muscles and tendons in the back area and vertebrae gives effective results in reducing pain.
  • Physical Therapy; Physiotherapy is necessary for the treatment and prevention of the problem by taking professional approaches in back pain as well as in many types of pain. The most important difference that distinguishes back problems from other regions is that the exercises to be done for the back are less and it is difficult to intervene on one’s own back. Physiotherapists use different techniques to help patients return to their pre-injury activity level, first by relaxing the back, then strengthening, and then regaining mobility.
  • PRP (Platelet Rich Plasma- platelet-rich plasma); PRP is a liquid that contains intensive healing factors obtained from the blood taken from the person himself. This fluid is injected into the problem area. It can be repeated for maximum effect.
  • Cortisone Injection; Cortisone is a very powerful drug used to treat inflammation, but it can also cause harm. It can be used in patients with back pain. It is important to seek medical advice about cortisone use.


Depending on the kind of again ache you have, your physician may advise the following:

  • Over-the-counter (OTC) ache relievers. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), consisting of ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others) or naproxen sodium (Aleve), might also additionally assist relieve again ache. Take those medicines simplest as directed with the aid of using your physician. Overuse can reason critical aspect effects. If OTC ache relievers do not relieve your ache, your physician may advise prescription NSAIDs.
  • Muscle relaxants. If slight to slight again ache does not enhance with OTC ache relievers, your physician may also prescribe a muscle relaxant. Muscle relaxants could make you dizzy and sleepy.
  • Topical ache relievers. These merchandise supply ache-relieving materials via your pores and skin thru creams, salves, ointments, or patches.
  • Narcotics. Drugs containing opioids, consisting of oxycodone or hydrocodone, can be used for a brief time with near supervision with the aid of using your physician. Opioids do not paintings properly for persistent ache, so your prescription will normally offer much less than a week’s really well worth of pills.
  • Antidepressants. Some sorts of antidepressants — especially duloxetine (Cymbalta) and tricyclic antidepressants, consisting of amitriptyline — were proven to alleviate persistent again ache unbiased in their impact on depression.

Surgical and different techniques

Procedures used to deal with returned ache may also include:

  • Cortisone injections. If different measures do not relieve your ache, and in case your ache radiates down your leg, your medical doctor may also inject cortisone — a robust anti-
  • inflammatory drug — plus a numbing medicine into the gap around your spinal cord (epidural space). A cortisone injection enables lower infection across the nerve roots, however, the ache remedy generally lasts handiest a month or two.
  • Radiofrequency neurotomy. In this procedure, a first-class needle is inserted thru your pores and skin so the top is close to the location inflicting your ache. Radio waves are exceeded thru the needle to harm the close by nerves, which interferes with the transport of ache indicators to the brain.
  • Implanted nerve stimulators. Devices implanted below your pores and skin can supply electric impulses to sure nerves to dam ache indicators.
  • Surgery. If you’ve got unrelenting ache related to radiating leg ache or revolutionary muscle weak point due to nerve compression, you may advantage from surgery. These techniques are generally reserved for ache associated with structural problems, inclusive of narrowing of the spine (spinal stenosis) or a herniated disk, that hasn’t answered to a different therapy.


A physical therapist can teach you exercises to increase your flexibility, strengthen your back and abdominal muscles, and improve your posture. Regular use of these techniques can help prevent the pain from coming back. Physical therapists will also train you on how to change your movements during a back pain episode to prevent flare-ups of pain symptoms while still being active.

Treatment for back pain depends on the source of the pain. In some cases (muscle pain) exercise is sufficient, in some cases (eg hernia) rest, medication, traction, manual therapy, and even surgery may be required. The methods used in the treatment of back pain are programmed individually as a result of a comprehensive examination.

These treatments are;

  • Superficial hot and cold
  • deep heaters (ultrasound, laser)
  • Electrotherapy
  • Traction (Antalgic Trach)
  • Manual Therapy (mobilization, manipulation)
  • Local injections (epidural steroid injection, PRP)
  • kinesiology tape
  • Acoustic wave therapy (AWT)
  • Medical Massage
  • Laser
  • Magnetic field
  • Personalized exercise

The above treatment methods are determined according to the needs of the patient and applied by a specialist team.

Alternative medicine

A range of opportunity remedies would possibly ease the signs and symptoms of returned aches. Always talk about the advantages and dangers together along with your medical doctor earlier than beginning a brand new opportunity therapy.

  • Chiropractic care. A chiropractor manipulates your backbone to ease your ache.
  • Acupuncture. A practitioner of acupuncture inserts skinny sterilized needles into the pores and skin at particular factors at the frame. A developing frame of medical proof shows acupuncture may be beneficial in treating returned ache.
  • Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS). A battery-powered tool located at the pores and skin supplies electric impulses to the painful area. Studies have proven blended consequences as to TENS’ effectiveness.
  • Massage. If your returned ache is because of disturbing or overworked muscle mass, rubdown would possibly help.
  • Yoga. There are numerous sorts of yoga, a large area that includes training particular postures or poses, respiration exercises, and rest techniques. Yoga can stretch and improve muscle mass and enhance posture, despite the fact that you may want to regulate a few poses in the event that they worsen your signs and symptoms.

Preparing for your appointment

If your returned ache persists no matter domestic remedy, see your medical doctor. Here are a few statistics that will help you get equipped for your appointment.

What you may do

Make a listing of:

  • Key private statistics, along with intellectual or emotional stressors to your life
  • Your signs, and once they began
  • All medications, vitamins, and different supplements you take, along with doses
  • Questions to invite your medical doctor

Take a member of the family or pal along, if viable, that will help you recall the statistics you receive.

For returned ache, inquiries to ask your medical doctor include:

  • What is the maximum probable motive for my returned ache?
  • Do I want diagnostic tests?
  • What remedy method do you recommend?
  • If you are recommending medications, what are the viable aspect effects?
  • I produce other scientific conditions. How can I nicely control them together?
  • How lengthy will I want to remedy?
  • What self-care measures must I try?
  • What can I do to save you a recurrence of returned ache?

What to assume out of your medical doctor

Your medical doctor is probable to invite your questions, along with:

  • When did your returned ache begin?
  • Have you ever injured your returned?
  • Is the ache constant?
  • Does the ache have an effect on your cap potential to function? If so, how much?
  • Do you’ve got different symptoms and symptoms or signs except for returned ache?
  • Do you do heavy bodily work?
  • Do you exercise regularly? What varieties of sports do you do?
  • How regularly do you sense depressed or anxious?
  • Do you sleep well?
  • What remedies or self-care measures have you ever attempted so far? Has something helped?

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