What is osteoporosis? Symptoms and Treatment Methods

Osteoporosis: The bones that make up the skeletal system are structures with the high calcium content. There is rapid bone formation in infancy and childhood. Towards the end of the 20s, when the adolescent period ends, bone formation reaches almost the same level as bone destruction. From this moment on, in order to delay the destruction of bones as age progresses, care should be taken to intake calcium and vitamin D and maintain bone mass and health.

Since bone destruction accelerates with the advancement of age, this situation, when combined with unbalanced nutrition, begins to develop the picture of bone resorption, also known as osteoporosis. Although it does not cause major problems in the early period, since it may cause damage to the bones as age progresses, the disease should be detected early with routine screening and necessary treatment procedures should be applied.

What is osteoporosis?


In healthy and young bones, there is a structure consisting of minerals and mostly calcium salts bound to strong collagen fibers. With aging, it is normal for this structure to lose its strength, weaken, and become unstable. However, osteoporosis means that bones turn into a much more fragile structure due to the extreme decrease in bone density. Osteoporosis, known as osteoporosis, literally means spongy (porous) bone. The density of the bones decreases by forming gaps. This causes them to become prone to breaking and cracking. It is mostly detected by imaging the bones after a fracture or crack has developed. The most common bone fractures due to osteoporosis are the bones in the wrists, spine, and hip.

Symptoms of osteoporosis?


Bone loss does not cause any symptoms in the early period. It is also very difficult to detect the disease as long as there is no fracture or crack in the bone despite the decrease in bone density, or unless bone density tests are performed. In the case of progression of osteoporosis, patients may feel some symptoms. Some of these are as follows:

  • Low back pain caused by a broken or collapsed vertebra in the spine
  • Neck shortening due to bone curvature over time
  • Hunchback and crooked posture
  • Breaking and cracking that can occur even with simple movements

The symptoms given above are symptoms that can only manifest themselves when osteoporosis reaches advanced levels and bone damage begins to occur. After the disease reaches this stage, it is not possible to reverse the damage to the bones. For this reason, elderly individuals should apply the necessary lifestyle changes, pay attention to their diet, and exercise regularly to avoid this disease. Postmenopausal women should have screening tests for bone density at the intervals recommended by their physicians.

Causes of osteoporosis (bone loss)


Bones are constantly in a state of renewal. While osteoblast cells are responsible for the production of new bone cells, osteoclast cells allow the old bone cells to be broken down. As the age progresses, the bone formation becomes incapable of bone destruction, and the process of osteoporosis begins, and when this condition comes together with malnutrition, the picture called osteoporosis occurs. Risk factors for the occurrence of osteoporosis are:

  • Insufficient intake of calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D
  • Female gender and especially being in the post-menopausal period
  • Advanced age
  • Genetic predisposition
  • Low levels of sex hormones
  • Thyroid hormonal disorders
  • Removal of the ovaries in the premenopausal period
  • Adrenal gland diseases
  • Use of steroid-containing drugs
  • Smoking and alcohol use
  • Sedentary lifestyle

Many different elements also can boom the hazard of growing osteoporosis, including:

  • taking high-dose steroid pills for extra than three months
  • different medical conditions – inclusive of inflammatory conditions, hormone-associated conditions, or malabsorption problems
  • an own circle of relatives records of osteoporosis – specifically a hip fracture in a parent
  • long-time period use of sure drugs which could have an effect on bone energy or hormone levels, inclusive of anti-estrogen pills that many ladies take after breast cancer
  • having or having had a consuming ailment inclusive of anorexia or bulimia
  • having a low frame mass index (BMI)
  • now no longer exercise regularly
  • heavy ingesting and smoking

Risk factors


A range of things can boom the probability that you may increase osteoporosis — consisting of your age, race, way of life choices, and scientific situations and treatments.

Unchangeable risks

Some threat elements for osteoporosis are from your control, consisting of:

  • Your sex. Women are more likely to increase osteoporosis than are men.
  • Age. The older you get, the more your threat of osteoporosis.
  • Race. You’re at best threat of osteoporosis in case you are white or of Asian descent.
  • Family history. Having a discern or sibling with osteoporosis places you at more threat, mainly in case your parent fractured a hip.
  • Body size. Men and ladies who’ve small frame frames have a tendency to have a better threat due to the fact they could have much less bone mass to attract from as they age.

Osteoporosis can have an effect on guys and women. It’s a greater, not unusual place in older people, however, it is able to additionally have an effect on more youthful people.

Women

Women are greater vulnerable to growing osteoporosis than guys because the hormone modifications that occur at menopause at once have an effect on bone density.

The woman’s hormone estrogen is crucial for wholesome bones. After menopause, estrogen stages fall. This can result in a speedy lower bone density.

Women are at even extra hazard of growing osteoporosis in the event that they have:

  • Early menopause (earlier than the age of 45)
  • A hysterectomy (elimination of the womb) earlier than the age of 45, specifically while the ovaries also are removed
  • Absent periods for greater than 6 months due to overexercising or an excessive amount of dieting

Men

In maximum cases, the reason for osteoporosis in guys is unknown. However, there is a hyperlink to the male hormone testosterone, which enables preserve the bones wholesome.

Men keep producing testosterone into vintage age, however, the hazard of osteoporosis is improved in guys with low stages of testosterone.

In around 1/2 of the guys, the precise reason for low testosterone stages is unknown, however, recognized reasons include:

  • Taking positive medicines, such as steroid tablets
  • Alcohol misuse
  • Hypogonadism (a situation that reasons abnormally low testosterone stages)

Other factors idea to boom the danger of osteoporosis and damaged bones include:

  • Family records of osteoporosis
  • Parental records of hip fracture
  • A-frame mass index (BMI) of nineteen or less
  • Long-time period use of high-dose steroid tablets (those are broadly used for fitness situations inclusive of arthritis and asthma)
  • Having a consuming disorder, inclusive of anorexia or bulimia
  • Heavy consumption and smoking
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Malabsorption problems, as in coeliac sickness and Crohn’s sickness
  • Some drugs used to deal with breast most cancers and prostate most cancers have an effect on hormone levels
  • Long durations of inactivity, inclusive of long-time period mattress rest

Hormone ranges

Osteoporosis is an extra not unusual place in human beings who have an excessive amount of or too little positive hormones in their bodies. Examples encompass:

  • Sex hormones. Lowered intercourse hormone ranges generally tend to weaken bone. The discount of estrogen ranges in ladies at menopause is one of the most powerful danger elements for growing osteoporosis.
  • Men have a slow discount in testosterone ranges as they age. Treatments for prostate most cancers that lessen testosterone ranges in guys and remedies for breast most cancers that lessen estrogen ranges in ladies are possible to boost up bone loss.
  • Thyroid problems. Too many of thyroid hormones can reason bone loss. This can arise in case your thyroid is overactive or in case you take an excessive amount of thyroid hormone medicinal drug to deal with an underactive thyroid.
  • Other glands. Osteoporosis has additionally been related to overactive parathyroid and adrenal glands.

Dietary elements

Osteoporosis is much more likely to arise in human beings who’ve:

  • Low calcium consumption. A lifelong loss of calcium performs a position withinside the improvement of osteoporosis. Low calcium consumption contributes to faded bone density, early bone loss, and an extended danger of fractures.
  • Eating disorders. Severely proscribing meal consumption and being underweight weakens bone in each guy and ladies.
  • Gastrointestinal surgery. Surgery to lessen the scale of your belly or to do away with a part of the gut limits the quantity of floor place to be had to soak up nutrients, such as calcium. These surgical procedures encompass the ones that will help you shed pounds and for different gastrointestinal disorders.

Steroids and different medicinal drugs

Long-time period use of oral or injected corticosteroid medicinal drugs, which includes prednisone and cortisone, interferes with the bone-rebuilding process. Osteoporosis has additionally been related to medicinal drugs used to fight or prevent:

  • Seizures
  • Gastric reflux
  • Cancer
  • Transplant rejection

Medical conditions

The danger of osteoporosis is better in human beings who’ve positive scientific problems, such as:

  • Celiac disease
  • Inflammatory bowel disease
  • Kidney or liver disease
  • Cancer
  • Lupus
  • Multiple myeloma
  • Rheumatoid arthritis

How is osteoporosis diagnosed?


Osteoporosis also brings some complications. The most common of these are bone fractures. In the case of osteoporosis, it is not necessary to take a heavy blow or have an accident to cause fractures in the bones. In patients with severe osteoporosis, fractures may occur due to a small sprain and sometimes even sudden movements such as coughing. An example of this is the detection of fractures in people who go to a doctor, especially due to hip pain. Bone density measurement should be done to accurately diagnose bone resorption.

DEXA is the most commonly used and most reliable method for this. While bone density can be measured easily and painlessly with the DEXA method, patients are not exposed to high amounts of radiation. Measurement can be done in any of the bones of the hip, wrist, or spine, which are the areas most affected by osteoporosis.

As mentioned above, osteoporosis does not cause any symptoms in the early period. Therefore, taking into account that bone resorption is a very common disease without waiting for symptoms to appear, women in the post-menopausal period and men over 50 years old should consult a physician and undergo regular DEXA measurements.

How osteoporosis is diagnosed

A bone density check lets you decide when you have osteoporosis or are in danger.

How do you understand when you have osteoporosis or in case you are in danger? This is a not unusual place question, and one to get replied faster in place of later.

Because bone loss generally occurs step by step and painlessly, the primary signal of osteoporosis may be breaking a bone, frequently extra without difficulty than you’ll expect. But it’s miles viable to decide when you have osteoporosis, even earlier than a bone is damaged, with the aid of using getting a bone density check. The check also can be hit upon in case your bone density is decreased than regular for someone of your age and sex. Bone loss that has now no longer reached the level of an osteoporosis analysis is referred to as osteopenia.

Bone density testing

A bone density check is as near as your medical doctor can come to predicting your destiny bone health. The check effects will display when you have osteopenia or osteoporosis, and the way prone your bones are to fracture. A bone density check is a pleasant manner to are expecting fracture danger.

The check makes use of X-rays to a degree what a number of grams of calcium and different bone minerals are in a rectangular centimeter of bone. Generally, the better the mineral content, the denser the bone is. And the denser bones are, the much less probable they’re to fracture.

Bone density trying out makes use of a tool referred to as a bone densitometer. Most densitometers degree how an awful lot of a low-power X-ray beam is absorbed because it passes via bone, in contrast to the absorption because the beam passes via the tender tissues subsequent to the bone. The quantity of X-ray power that enters the bone is likewise as compared with the quantity of power that leaves the bone. Denser bone absorbs extra of the X-ray beam.

Standard deviation is a measure of variability based on an average or expected value. A T score of:

  • Above -1 SD is normal
  • Aetween -1 and -2.5 SD shows bone loss and is defined as osteopenia
  • Below -2.5 shows bone loss and is defined as osteoporosis

Central densitometers

These machines, generally determined in hospitals and scientific centers, are used to degree the density of the primary, stabilizing elements of the skeleton, inclusive of the backbone and hip. This sort of densitometer affords the maximum correct bone density trying out and may be expecting your ability danger of fracture.

Dual-power X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A DXA system makes use of special X-ray beams to boom the precision of what it is measuring. As you lie on a padded platform, mechanical fingers containing an X-ray supply and detector above and under your frame are aligned. DXA is most customarily achieved at the slender neck of the higher leg bone (femur), simply under the hip joint, in addition to the lumbar vertebrae, which shape the decrease a part of the backbone. DXA trying out is painless and takes just a few minutes.

Quantitative automated tomography (QCT). This device measures bone density through the usage of automated tomography (CT). Similar to having a CT experiment, you lie on a movable padded desk that slides right into a massive cylinder, wherein X-ray pix are received from all angles. QCT is most customarily used to degree density withinside the vertebrae and the part of the femur under the hip.

Peripheral densitometers

Smaller gadgets are used to degree bone density at the outer edge of the skeleton, inclusive of withinside the wrist and heel bone. Although they’re extra transportable, those densitometers are much less correct at predicting fracture danger. If your check on a peripheral tool is effective for osteopenia or osteoporosis, then your medical doctor would possibly advocate a follow-up experiment of your backbone or hip to affirm the analysis.

Quantitative ultrasound (QUS). This technique is frequently referred to as heel ultrasound as it generally measures bone density withinside the heel bone. Instead of X-ray radiation, QUS sends excessive-frequency sound waves via your heel even as you relaxation your naked foot at the device. This sort of densitometer measures the mirrored image of sound waves. Denser bone displays sound waves lower back to the tool faster.

Peripheral dual-power X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). This tool is a compact, transportable DXA scanner. Using X-rays, DXA measures bone density withinside the wrist or heel. Although it is brief and correct, this trying out may be expensive.

Peripheral quantitative automated tomography (pQCT). This transportable model of QCT measures the bone density of the wrist or hand. This check is likewise expensive, and it produces better radiation publicity than doing different checks.

Other varieties of trying out, consisting of 3D imaging and excessive-decision magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), also are beneath neath investigation.

CT scan

Computed tomography (CT) scan combines a series of X-ray images taken from different angles around your body and uses computer processing to create cross-section images (slices) of bones, blood vessels, and soft tissues in your body. CT scan images provide more detailed information than plain X-rays.

A CT scan has many uses, but it is particularly well suited to quickly examine people who may have internal injuries from car accidents or other types of trauma. A CT scan can be used to visualize almost any part of the body and is used to diagnose diseases or injuries as well as plan medical, surgical, or radiation therapy.

The peripheral tool is effective for osteopenia or osteoporosis, then your medical doctor would possibly advocate a follow-up experiment of your backbone or hip to affirm the analysis.

Quantitative ultrasound (QUS). This technique is frequently referred to as heel ultrasound as it generally measures bone density withinside the heel bone. Instead of X-ray radiation, QUS sends excessive-frequency sound waves via your heel even as you relaxation your naked foot at the device. This sort of densitometer measures the mirrored image of sound waves. Denser bone displays sound waves lower back to the tool faster.

Peripheral dual-power X-ray absorptiometry (PDXA). This tool is a compact, transportable DXA scanner. Using X-rays, PDXA measures bone density withinside the wrist or heel. Although it is brief and correct, this trying out may be expensive.

Peripheral quantitative automated tomography (pQCT). This transportable model of QCT measures the bone density of the wrist or hand. This check is likewise expensive, and it produces better radiation publicity than do different checks.

Other varieties of trying out, consisting of 3D imaging and excessive-decision magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), also are beneath neath investigation.

Ultrasound

Diagnostic ultrasound, also called sonography or diagnostic medical sonography, is an imaging method that uses high-frequency sound waves to produce images of the structures in your body. Images can provide valuable information for the diagnosis and treatment of a variety of diseases and conditions.

Most ultrasound exams are done outside of your body using an ultrasound device, but some involve placing a device inside your body.

In addition, blood and urine tests are performed to detect other diseases and conditions that may cause osteoporosis. Markers that determine bone formation and destruction can be evaluated in blood and urine. Laboratory tests usually requested for osteoporosis diagnosis are as follows.

  • Whole blood and urine analysis
  • Serum biochemistry: ALP, Ca, P, total protein / alb, BUN, Cr, KCFT
  • 25 OH cholecalciferol
  • PTH
  • Serum protein electrophoresis
  • Thyroid function tests
  • Ca excretion in 24-hour urine
  • Bone resorption markers such as NTX in serum or urine

In addition, if deemed necessary for differential diagnosis, different radiological examinations such as x-rays can be performed.

Complications


How can osteoporosis cause the vertebrae to break down and collapse?
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Bone fractures, especially in the spine or hip, are the most serious complications of osteoporosis. Hip fractures are often caused by falls and can lead to an increased risk of disability and even death in the first year after injury.

In some cases, spinal fractures can occur even if you haven’t fallen. The bones (vertebrae) that make up your spine can weaken to the point of crumbling, which can cause back pain, loss of height, and a forward-humped posture.

Prevention


Good nutrients and normal exercising are critical for maintaining your bones healthy at some stage in your life.

Protein

Protein is one of the constructing blocks of bone. However, there is conflicting proof approximately the effect of protein consumption on bone density.

Most humans get lots of protein in their diets, however, a few do now no longer. Vegetarians and vegans can get sufficient protein withinside the weight loss plan in the event that they deliberately are trying to find appropriate reasserts, consisting of soy, nuts, legumes, seeds for vegans and vegetarians, and dairy and eggs for vegetarians.

Older adults would possibly consume much less protein for numerous reasons. If you believe you studied you are now no longer getting sufficient protein, ask your physician if supplementation is an option.

Bodyweight

Being underweight will increase the risk of bone loss and fractures. Excess weight is referred to now to boom the threat of fractures for your arm and wrist. As such, preserving suitable frame weight is right for bones simply as it’s miles for fitness in general.

Calcium

Men and ladies between the while of 18 and 50 want 1,000 milligrams of calcium an afternoon. This everyday quantity will increase to 1, two hundred milligrams whilst ladies flip 50 and guys flip 70.

Good reasserts of calcium include:

  • Low-fat dairy merchandise
  • Dark inexperienced leafy vegetables
  • Canned salmon or sardines with bones
  • Soy merchandise, consisting of tofu
  • Calcium-fortified cereals and orange juice

If you discover it tough to get sufficient calcium out of your weight loss plan, don’t forget to take calcium dietary supplements. However, an excessive amount of calcium has been related to kidney stones. Although but unclear, a few specialists advocate that an excessive amount of calcium specifically in dietary supplements can boom the threat of coronary heart disease.

The Health and Medicine Division of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (previously the Institute of Medicine) recommends that overall calcium consumption, from dietary supplements and weight loss plan combined, need to be no greater than 2,000 milligrams every day for humans older than 50.

Vitamin D

Vitamin D improves your frame’s capacity to take in calcium and improves bone fitness in different ways. People can get a number of their nutrition D from sunlight, however, this could now no longer be an awesome supply in case you stay in an excessive latitude, in case you’re housebound, or in case you often use sunscreen or keep away from the solar due to the threat of pores and skin cancer.

To get sufficient nutrition D to preserve bone fitness, it is advocated that adults while fifty-one to 70 get six hundred worldwide units (IU) and 800 IU an afternoon after age 70 via meals or dietary supplements.

People without different assets of nutrition D and specifically with confined solar publicity would possibly want a supplement. Most multivitamin merchandise incorporates between six hundred and 800 IU of nutrition D. Up to 4,000 IU of nutrition D an afternoon is secure for maximum humans.

Exercise

Exercise permit you to construct robust bones and gradual bone loss. Exercise will gain your bones regardless of while you begin, however you may benefit from the maximum blessings in case you begin exercising often while you’re younger and preserve to exercising at some stage in your life.

Combine power education sporting activities with weight-bearing and stability sporting activities. Strength education facilitates support muscle mass and bones for your hands and higher spine. Weight-bearing sporting activities — consisting of walking, jogging, running, stair climbing, skipping rope, skiing, and effect-generating sports — have an effect on especially the bones for your legs, hips, and decrease spine. Balance sporting activities consisting of tai chi can lessen your threat of falling specifically as you get older.

Swimming, cycling, and exercise on machines consisting of elliptical running shoes can offer an awesome cardiovascular workout, however, they do not enhance bone fitness.

How is Osteoporosis (Bone Melting) Treatment Done?


One of the most curious issues about osteoporosis is “Can osteoporosis be cured?” comes the question. Purpose in osteoporosis treatment; To improve bone quality and to prevent fracture formation by strengthening the bone.

  • In the treatment of osteoporosis, various drugs (drugs that reduce bone destruction and drugs that increase production) can be initiated in patients who are evaluated and found appropriate by blood and urine tests. These treatments should be continued for at least 1 year and then it should be decided to continue the treatment with annual controls. However, not every osteoporosis medication is suitable for every patient. These treatments are decided by the doctor’s examinations.
  • In addition, supportive treatments such as calcium and vitamin D should be used for the treatment of osteoporosis. Although the need varies according to age, the average daily calcium need is between 1000-1500 mg. It is aimed to keep vitamin D in the range of 30-60 ng/ml. Therefore, the need should be adjusted according to the vitamin D value from person to person.
  • Physical activity and exercise is another important step in osteoporosis treatment. The importance of weight-bearing exercises such as walking, jogging, and muscle strengthening exercises in the name of bone mass regeneration has been shown in many studies. Fast walking for 20-30 minutes at least 3 times a week is beneficial to protect bones.
  • In the treatment of osteoporosis, yoga is an activity recommended in terms of increasing the flexibility of the body, improving posture, preventing humpback as a result of osteoporosis, and controlling the person’s spine.
  • In the treatment of osteoporosis, dance is very beneficial for bones as it is an activity that involves rhythmic movements against gravity. Group dance exercises increase the motivation of the person, provide social participation, and have positive effects on the quality of life. It should not be forgotten that all these physical activities should be done under the doctor’s recommendation and control.
  • In this group of patients, the risk of falling is high due to both their advanced age and imbalance problems that develop due to posture disorders and muscle breakdown. The quality of life of patients is increased by preventing the risk of falling and using devices such as various corsets.

Bisphosphonates

For each lady and man at an expanded danger of fracture, the maximum broadly prescribed osteoporosis medicines are bisphosphonates. Examples encompass:

  • Alendronate (Binosto, Fosamax)
  • Risedronate (Actonel, Atelvia)
  • Ibandronate (Boniva)
  • Zoledronic acid (Reclast, Zometa)

Side outcomes encompass nausea, stomach pain, and heartburn-like signs. These are much less possibly to arise if the medication is taken properly.

Intravenous varieties of bisphosphonates do not purpose belly dissatisfied however can purpose fever, headache, and muscle aches for up to a few days. It is probably less complicated to agenda a quarterly or every year injection than to take into account to take a weekly or month-to-month pill, however, it could be extra expensive to accomplish that.

Monoclonal antibody drugs

Compared to bisphosphonates, denosumab (Prolia, Xgeva) produces similar or better bone density results and reduces the likelihood of any type of fracture. Denosumab is given in a shot under the skin every six months.

If you take denosumab, you may need to continue doing this forever. Recent research suggests that there may be a high risk of spinal fractures after stopping the drug.

A very rare complication of bisphosphonates and denosumab is a break or crack in the middle of the thigh bone.

A second rare complication is delayed healing of the jawbone (osteonecrosis of the jaw). This can occur after an invasive dental procedure, such as removing a tooth.

Before starting these medications, you should have a dental examination, continue to take good care of your teeth, and see your dentist regularly while using them. Make sure your dentist knows that you are taking these medications.

Hormone-associated remedy

Estrogen, especially whilst commenced quickly after menopause, can assist preserve bone density. However, estrogen remedies can boom the danger of blood clots, endometrial cancer, breast cancer, and in all likelihood coronary heart disease. Therefore, estrogen is commonly used for bone fitness in more youthful girls or in girls whose menopausal signs additionally require remedy.

Raloxifene (Evista) mimics estrogen’s useful outcomes on bone density in postmenopausal girls, without a number of the dangers related to estrogen. Taking this drug can lessen the danger of a few kinds of breast cancer. Hot flashes are a not unusual place aspect effect. Raloxifene additionally may also boom your danger of blood clots.

In guys, osteoporosis is probably connected with a sluggish age-associated decline in testosterone levels. Testosterone alternative remedy can assist enhance signs of low testosterone, however, osteoporosis medicines were higher studied in guys to deal with osteoporosis and for that reason are encouraged on my own or similar to testosterone.

Bone-constructing medicines

If you can not tolerate the extra not unusual place remedies for osteoporosis — or in the event that they do not paintings nicely enough — your health practitioner would possibly advocate trying:

  • Teriparatide (Forteo). This effective drug is just like parathyroid hormone and stimulates new bone growth. It’s given with the aid of using each day injection below the pores and skin. After years of remedy with teriparatide, any other osteoporosis drug is taken to preserve the brand new bone growth.
  • Abaloparatide (Tymlos) is any other drug just like a parathyroid hormone. You can take it for the most effective years, which allows you to be observed with the aid of using any other osteoporosis medicinal drug.
  • Romosozumab (Evening). This is the most up-to-date bone-constructing medicinal drug to deal with osteoporosis. It is given as an injection each month at your health practitioner’s office. It is constrained to 12 months of remedy, observed with the aid of using different osteoporosis medicines.

Lifestyle and domestic remedies

These pointers would possibly assist lessen your danger of growing osteoporosis or breaking bones:

  • Don’t smoke. Smoking will increase the charges of bone loss and the threat of fracture.
  • Avoid immoderate alcohol. Consuming extra than alcoholic liquids an afternoon would possibly lower bone formation. Being below the have an effect on alcohol can also boom your danger of falling.
  • Prevent falls. Wear low-heeled footwear with nonslip soles and take a look at your own home for electric cords, vicinity rugs, and slippery surfaces that would purpose you to fall. Keep rooms brightly lit, set up snatch bars simply outside and inside your bathe door, and make certain you may get into and from your mattress easily.

Alternative medicine

There are constrained proof that positive supplements, including diet K-2 and soy, can assist decrease fracture danger in osteoporosis, however extra research is had to show blessings and decide dangers.

Physiotherapy for osteoporosis


Frequently asked questions about osteoporosis.


Is It Possible To Prevent Osteoporosis?

It is possible to intake sufficient amounts of calcium and vitamin D at all ages and especially until the age of 30, to avoid regular physical activity and use of sports, smoking, alcohol, risk drugs, to prevent chronic diseases, and to minimize the risk of osteoporosis with regular treatment.

What are the degrees of osteoporosis (bone resorption)?

The values ​​obtained in bone density are compared with the values ​​of young adults and deviations from normal give the T score value. According to these data, the World Health Organization has rated osteoporosis. If the T score is below -2.5, it is called osteoporosis. If the T score value is between -1 and -2.5, it is not called complete bone resorption, ie osteoporosis, but osteopenia, ie the beginning of bone resorption. If the T score is above -1, the value is normal.

Can Osteoporosis (Bone Melting) Be Treated?

Osteoporosis, or bone loss, is a treatable disease.

Purpose in treatment; To improve bone quality and to prevent fracture formation by strengthening the bone

  • Medicines: drugs that reduce bone resorption and increase production
  • Supportive treatments: Use of calcium and vitamins
  • Physical activity and exercise
  • Prevention of fall risk

When Does Osteoporosis Begin?

Advanced age is an important risk factor. It starts after menopause in women. It can also start after the age of 50 in men, but most of the elderly osteoporosis is seen after the age of 70.

Of course, these are situations that occur under normal conditions. If there are risk factors such as a concomitant disease or drug use that cause osteoporosis, then it is also seen in younger ages.

Sometimes, osteoporosis can occur in young adult ages, whose cause is known and we see more genetic inheritance.

In addition, pregnancy osteoporosis is observed in some pregnant women and early osteoporosis in breastfeeding mothers. But these usually resolve on their own.

Is bone loss experienced at a young age?

If there are risk factors such as concomitant osteoporosis, such as a disease or drug use, then it can be seen at younger ages.

Sometimes, osteoporosis can also occur in young adults, whose cause is not known and is mostly seen with genetic inheritance. In addition, pregnancy osteoporosis is observed in some pregnant women and early osteoporosis in breastfeeding mothers. But these usually resolve on their own.

Is Osteoporosis Common in Men?

Osteoporosis can also be seen frequently in men.

While 1 out of every 2 women over the age of 50 has osteoporosis, 1 out of every 5 men over the age of 50 can experience osteoporosis.

Also, if there is a risk factor, for example; In the presence of conditions that may cause osteoporosis such as cortisone use, organ transplantation, and immunosuppressive drug use, diabetes, thyroid diseases, endocrine disorders that disrupt the hormonal balance, cancer treatments, it can also be encountered in men under 50 years of age. In addition, due to genetic transmission, it is possible to encounter osteoporosis, which is called idiopathic, in males at a young age.

Do Osteoporosis Symptoms (Bone Melting) Differ in Men?

Symptoms of osteoporosis in advanced age are the same as in women. Anyway, osteoporosis is generally silent. In other words, it does not give symptoms unless it has a complication such as a fracture. But if men have gonadal hormone deficiencies, then it may be a symptom of that disease, such as impotence.

What Causes More Osteoporosis in Women?

Estrogen is the most important factor for more osteoporosis, ie bone resorption, in women. The sudden decrease in estrogen during menopause is the most important factor that increases bone resorption.

In addition, the structure of bones in women is thinner compared to men, and muscle mass is less than in men. These are factors that affect bone quality and strength.

What is Idiopathic Osteoporosis?

Idiopathic osteoporosis is osteoporosis of unknown cause. Idiopathic osteoporosis is usually seen in young people. If there is osteoporosis in the absence of an accompanying disease or risk factor that may cause osteoporosis, then it is called idiopathic osteoporosis.

What is Spotted Osteoporosis?

Sudeck’s atrophy is the name given to osteopenia in the bones, which is the result of a clinical syndrome known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy or algonurodystrophy. It is regional and is called spotted osteoporosis because of the bone resorption in the form of punctuated areas. This is a symptom of the syndrome that develops as a result of an excessive increase in sympathetic activity triggered as a reflex after being immobile in plaster for a long time after fracture, accompanied by the color change in the affected part, severe pain, edema, and movement limitation. It is a complex condition and can be seen not only after fractures but also in many other conditions such as nerve damage.

What is Postmenopausal Osteoporosis?

Postmenopausal osteoporosis is rapid osteoporosis that progresses especially in the first 5 years as a result of a sudden decrease in estrogen in women after menopause.

What is Senile Osteoporosis?

It is osteoporosis due to aging. Osteoporosis seen in men and women over the age of 70 is called senile osteoporosis. The female / male incidence rate is 2/1 over the age of 70.

What is Transient Osteoporosis?

It is a rare condition known as transient osteoporosis seen in the hipbone. It begins with bone marrow edema, pain occurs when you press on it, and walking may be difficult. It is usually a self-correcting condition. It affects more males or pregnant women between the ages of 40-50. Although the reasons are not fully understood, previous trauma, arthritis, vascular disorders (avascular necrosis), infections, alcohol use, heavy smoking, hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid gland), low testosterone levels, vitamin D deficiency, pregnancy, breastfeeding, temporary osteoporosis in the hip that is, it causes transient osteoporosis.

What is Secondary Osteoporosis?

Osteoporosis is seen in postmenopausal women, senile osteoporosis and osteoporosis of unknown cause in young people, some diseases and drugs used cause osteoporosis. This type of osteoporosis is called secondary osteoporosis.

These;

Inflammatory joint rheumatisms such as rheumatoid arthritis, chronic liver disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), diabetes and insulin use, end-stage renal failure, patients undergoing hemodialysis, and kidney transplantation are among the causes of osteoporosis. In addition, immunosuppressive drugs used in organ transplant patients may cause osteoporosis. The parathyroid hormone secreted by the parathyroid gland is one of the most important elements that ensure the balance of calcium and vitamin D in our body. Hyperparatitoridism, which is the result of the overwork of this gland, is one of the diseases that cause osteoporosis in hyperthyroidism resulting in overworking of the thyroid gland. Cancers such as leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma can also cause osteoporosis.

Malabsorption, which is seen after obesity surgery or due to some intestinal diseases, in other words, absorption disorders of the foods in the intestines also cause osteoporosis.

What is Transient Osteoporosis?

It is a rare condition known as transient osteoporosis seen in the hipbone. It begins with bone marrow edema, pain occurs when you press on it, and walking may be difficult. It is usually a self-correcting condition. It affects more males or pregnant women between the ages of 40-50. Although the reasons are not fully understood, previous trauma, arthritis, vascular disorders (avascular necrosis), infections, alcohol use, heavy smoking, hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid gland), low testosterone levels, vitamin D deficiency, pregnancy, breastfeeding, temporary osteoporosis in the hip that is, it causes transient osteoporosis.

What is Juvenile Osteoporosis?

It is osteoporosis in children that does not have any cause. It is seen between the ages of 1-13 before puberty, ie puberty. All childhood causes that may cause osteoporosis should be investigated by a pediatric endocrinologist. The first signs of juvenile osteoporosis; It can be in the form of the waist, hip, and foot pain. Fractures may accompany this condition. There is no medication. Meanwhile, the most important thing is to protect children from possible bone deformities and to increase muscle strength. For this reason, physical therapy and exercise therapy, if necessary, the use of a cane or corset can be given. It is extremely important to strengthen bones with calcium and vitamin D supplements. Osteoporosis is a condition that usually resolves on its own in these children.

What is Osteoporosis T Score?

The values ​​obtained in bone density are compared with the values ​​of young adults and deviations from normal give the T score value. According to these data, the World Health Organization has rated osteoporosis.

Osteoporosis So What Is Good For Bone Melting?

Osteoporosis increases with vitamin D deficiency, calcium deficiency, excessive protein intake, excess sodium intake, excessive caffeine consumption, excess phosphate intake, excessive alcohol consumption, excessive cigarette consumption. Therefore, excessive consumption should be avoided and adequate calcium and vitamin D intake should be provided.

The daily need for calcium varies by age:

  • 9-18 years ® 1300 mg
  • 19 – 50 years ® 1000 mg
  • Postmenopausal ® 1000 – 1500 mg in women
  • ®1500 mg for men over 65 years of age

Our daily vitamin D requirement is 800-1000 units.

The natural source of vitamin D is the sun. In the summer for about 15 minutes, sunbathing with hands, face, arms, and legs open between 11-15 meets the daily need for vitamin D. But in this case, it is necessary to pay attention to the risk of skin cancer. In addition, using sunscreen cream and due to the deficiencies in the skin at an advanced age, sufficient vitamin D cannot be synthesized by sunbathing. The normal vitamin D value is 30 – 60 ng/ml, and supplements may be required to maintain this value.

What Happens as a Result of Osteoporosis (bone loss)?

The most important risk is fracture due to the weakening of the bone. Spinal fractures are the most common. Spinal fractures due to osteoporosis are 7 times more common in women than in men. In the second row, hip fractures are seen. The rate of osteoporosis-related hip fracture in women is 2 times higher than in men. Hip fractures are more common in older ages (over the age of 70). The risk of death within the first year as a result of hip fracture is between 12-40%, and this is a very high rate. For this reason, it is very important to be treated immediately and to ensure that the patient moves first. The 3rd most common area for fractures in the wrists. Wrist fractures are 5 times more common in women than men.

Does Osteoporosis (Bone Restoration) Kill?

Mortality rates after hip fracture have increased with multiple and severe spinal fractures, but not the osteoporosis itself.

Where Is Osteoporosis (Bone Melting) More Common?

The regions where bone loss is most common are the spine, hip, and wrist bones, respectively. For this reason, these areas are also selected when the bone measurement is to be made.

It can affect other bones but is less common.

Osteoporosis (Bone Melting) How Should the Nutrition Be?

The most important thing in nutrition is to ensure adequate calcium and vitamin D intake. Although the daily need for calcium varies according to age and gender, an average intake of 1200-1500 mg/day is sufficient. It is important to eat a diet rich in calcium.

Examples of calcium-rich foods include:

  • 1 cup of yogurt: 450 mg
  • 1 glass of milk: 300 mg
  • 1 matchbox cheese: 75 mg
  • Fish rich in calcium 1 serving of salmon: 200 mg

Our average daily need for vitamin D is about 800-100 units. When we look at our daily foods, it is seen that vitamin D intake will not be sufficient. Although egg yolk and salmon are rich in vitamin D, even if they are eaten every day, they do not meet their vitamin D needs. The most important source of vitamin D is the sun. However, the sun may not be used sufficiently. Therefore, it will be necessary to use nutritional vitamin D supplements. It can be used in drop or tablet form. 

Is There an Osteoporosis (Bone Melting) Diet?

It is important to get calcium and vitamin D in the diet.

Is There a Herbal Treatment for Osteoporosis (Bone Melting)?

There is no known herbal treatment for osteoporosis in evidence-based medicine.

Osteoporosis (Bone Melting) Is Broccoli Good?

100mg of broccoli contains 100mg of calcium. In addition, although it is beneficial in terms of other vitamins, neither broccoli nor other vegetables alone are good for osteoporosis. Considering that our daily calcium need is 1200 mg if we only try to get calcium from broccoli, 1/2 Kg of broccoli should be eaten a day. But it is important to eat a balanced diet to be healthy.

Is eggshell good for osteoporosis (bone loss)?

It is beneficial to eat the egg itself, as it contains vitamin D in the yolk, not the eggshell.

Osteoporosis (Bone Melting) Is Yogurt Peppermint Good?

In osteoporosis, milk and dairy products such as yogurt are very important in nutrition. Approximately 1 cup of yogurt contains 450 mg of calcium. This value meets 1/3 of the daily calcium requirement. Peppermint is rich in calcium. About 200 mg in 100 grams of mint. calcium is found. Therefore, eating it with yogurt increases calcium intake.

Osteoporosis (Bone Restoration) Is Milk Good?

Since milk and its products are rich in calcium, they are very important in protecting from osteoporosis and consumption as supplements. Approximately 300 mg in a glass of milk. there is as much calcium. This corresponds to our daily calcium needs.

Osteoporosis (Bone Melting) Is Milk And Lemon Mix Good Good?

Since milk and its products are rich in calcium, they are very important in protecting from osteoporosis and consumption as supplements. A glass of milk contains approximately 300 mg of calcium. This corresponds to our daily calcium needs.

Lemon contains much less calcium. A mixture of milk and lemon can be made if it is made routinely and although it is not a common mixture, it is liked. It can also be consumed separately.

What is Osteoporosis (Bone Melting) Needle?

Some treatments for osteoporosis are in the form of intravenous or subcutaneous injections. In addition to the injections of the drugs that suppress bone destruction applied once in 3 months, 6 months, and a year, there are treatments that increase bone formation applied daily subcutaneously. The doctor will choose the most suitable one according to the patient’s condition.  

What are the Side Effects of Osteoporosis Injection?

As with all medicines, both tablets and needles used in osteoporosis have various side effects. This depends on the content of the drug. It is recommended to consult a doctor for detailed and accurate information on side effects.

Is There a Relationship Between Menopause and Osteoporosis (Estrogen osteoporosis)?

The most common cause of osteoporosis in women is menopause. With menopause, there is a significant increase in bone destruction in the first 5 years. Postmenopausal women lose about 2% of their bones each year.

Osteoporosis (Bone Melting) Which Section Looks?

Which doctor should be visited for osteoporosis, ie bone resorption? The question is one of the most curious subjects. Physical therapy and rehabilitation departments are the primary departments for osteoporosis diagnosis and treatment. In addition, if there are diseases that cause osteoporosis, relevant branch opinions can be obtained for their control.

Does Osteoporosis (Bone Melting) Cause Pain?

Osteoporosis is generally a silent disease. However, if bone resorption is very intense, there may be microfractures without visible fractures yet, which may cause pain. The most important cause of back pain seen in osteoporosis is spinal fractures and deformities associated with them.

In Which Vitamin Deficiency Is Osteoporosis (Bone Melting) Occurred?

The relationship between vitamin D deficiency and bone strength quality is well known. Prolonged vitamin D deficiency is an important risk factor for osteoporosis.

What is the Difference Between Osteoporosis and Osteomalacia

Bone is an organ with organic (matrix) and inorganic (mineral) content. Its organic components are collagen, proteoglycans, non-collagenous matrix proteins, cytokines, and growth factors. The most important inorganic component is calcium hydroxyapatite crystals.

While the mineral and matrix ratio of the bone is equally reduced in osteoporosis, the mineral ratio decreases more in osteomalacia. Osteomalacia is seen in adults as a result of severe vitamin D deficiency. There is softening in the bones. This condition causes pain, loss of muscle strength, and fracture-like micro fractures in the bone. In osteoporosis, instead of softening the bone, there is a loss of strength and a deterioration in its quality.

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References
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